23 Feb 2014
I decided to turn this into a Wiki update.. as the prior entry is somewhat lacking. For example: Who created the TSM? Single Wire Protocol in the UICC? Who certifies a device for payment?
The New Wiki is now (with the last 2 para’s just added)
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no more than a few inches.
Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi. Communication is also possible between an NFC device and an unpowered NFC chip, called a “tag”.
NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443and FeliCa. The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC Forum, which was founded in 2004 by Nokia, Philips Semiconductors (became NXP Semiconductors since 2006) and Sony, and now has more than 160 members.The Forum also promotes NFC and certifies device compliance and if it fits the criteria for being considered a personal area network.
In addition to the NFC Forum, the GSMA has also worked to define a platform for the deployment of “GSMA NFC Standards”. within mobile handsets. GSMA’s efforts include“Trusted Services Manager”., Single Wire Protocol, testing and certification, “secure element”..
The GSMA’s standards surrounding the deployment of NFC protocols (governed by the NFC Forum above) on mobile handsets are not exclusive nor universally accepted. For example, Google’s deployment of Host Card Emulation on “Android KitKat 4.4”. in January 2014 provides for software control of a universal radio. In this “HCE Deployment”., the NFC protocol is leveraged without the GSMAs standards.
From a mobile payment perspective, NFC is
- Protocol. NFC Forum owns the Protocols making up the ISO specifications. These protocols are the “universal” aspect of NFC that is NOT changing.
- Platform for How NFC works in a Phone
- GSMA NFC Specifications, reference architectures, platform constructs (TSM, ..) outlining a SCHEME for how NFC manifests itself within a Handset Architecture
- Apple Secure Enclave
- Payment Network Standards and Certification. Exxon Mobile and Mastercard were the first contactless payment mechanisms, and Mastercard PayPass was the first Network Standard with reference implementation and certification for presentment and acceptance.
With HCE, the entire GSMA “NFC platform” is dead, but NOT the protocol (No UICC/SWP role, No TSM, Access to “controller” and Secure Element, no Handset Certification).
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